General Knowledge

The Founder of Taekwon-Do: General

Choi Hong Hi
The Date Taekwon-Do was Founded:

11th April, 1955
The Date the ITF was Founded:

22nd March, 1966
The Literal Meaning of Taekwon-Do:

Tae = foot technique
Kwon = hand technique
Do = art or way of life
General Choi’s Birth Date:

09th November, 1918


Taekwondo Counting












Korean Translations


Stance – So / Sogi
Attention Stance – Charyot sogi
Parallel Stance – Narani Sogi
Parallel Ready Stance – Narani Junbi Sogi
Walking Stance – Gunnun Sogi
L Stance – Niunja Sogi
Sitting Stance – Annon Sogi
Fixed Stance – Gojung Sogi
Close Stance – Moa Sogi
Close Ready Stance – Moa Junbi Sogi
Bending Ready Stance – Goburyo Sogi
X Stance – Kyocha Sogi
Rear Foot Stance – Dwit Bal Sogi
Vertical Stance – Soojik Sogi
Bow Posture – Kyongye Jase
High Section – Nopunde
Middle Section – Kaunde
Low Section – Najunde
Front- Ap
Back (Piercing)- Dwit (back piercing kick Dwitcha jirugi)
Back (Back fist)- Dung Joomuk
Outer- Bakat
Inner- An
Side- Yop
Side-Front- Yobap
Upper- Wi
Angle- Giokja
Vertical- Sewo
Flat- Opun


Reverse- Bandae
Obverse- Baro
Rising- Olligi/Chookyo
Downward- Naeryo
Circular- Dollimyo
Pressing- Noollo
Pushing- Miro
Twin- Sang
Wedging- Hechyo
Double/Twin- Doo
U-Shape- Digutja
W-Shape- San
Upset- Dwijibo

Snap- Busigi
Piercing- Jirugi
Turning- Dollyo
Hooking- Golcho
Twisting- Bituro
Upward (knee)- Moorup / Ollyo
Rising- Olligi/Chookyo
Downward- Naeryo
Straight- Sun
Flat- Opun
Pick-Shape- Gokaeng-i
Back (Piercing)- Dwit (back piercing kick Dwitcha jirugi)
Back (Back fist)- Dung Joomuk
Skip- Duro gamyo
Consecutive- Yonsuk
(c) Taekwon-Do South Africa 41
Punch- Jirugi
Kick- Chagi/ Cha (add to end of the direction you are kicking ie Apcha = frontkick)
Strike- Taerigi
Thrust- Tulgi
Block- Makgi
Guarding- Daebi
Forearm- Palmok
Fist- Joomuk
Inner Forearm- An Palmok
Outer Forearm- Bakat Palmok
Knife-Hand- Sonkal
Back Fist- Dung Joomuk
Fingertip- Sonkut
Palm- Sonbadak
Elbow- Palkup (Upper Elbow = Wi Palkup)
Twin Fist- Sang Joomuk
X-Fist- Kyocha Joomuk
Knee- Moorup
Sparring- Matsogi
Free Sparring- Jayu Matsogi
1 Step Sparring (Optional)- Ilbo Matsogi
3 Step Sparring (Optional)- Sambo Matsogi

Taekwondo Oath & Tenets

Taekwon-Do Oath:

I shall observe the Tenets of Taekwon-Do
I shall respect my instructors and seniors
I shall never misuse Taekwon-Do
I shall be a champion for freedom and justice
I shall build a more peaceful world

Tenets of Taekwon-Do:
1. Courtesy
2. Integrity
3. Perseverance
4. Self Control
5. Indomitable spirit

Grading from White Belt (10th Gup) to Yellow-stripe (9th Gup)

Compulsory Exercise:

Four direction Punch (Saju Jirugi)
Four direction Block (Saju Makgi)


Attention stance (Charyot sogi)
Bow Posture (Kyongye jase)
Parallel stance (Narani sogi)
Parallel ready stance (Narani junbi sogi)
Walking stance (Gunnun sogi)

Hand Techniques:

Walking stance middle front punch (Gunnun so kaunde ap jirugi)
Walking stance outer forearm low block (Gunnun so bakat palmok najunde makgi)
Walking stance knife-hand low block (Gunnun so sonkal najunde makgi)
Walking stance inner forearm middle side block (Gunnun so an palmok kaunde yop makgi)

Foot Techniques:

Front rising kick (Apcha olligi)
Front snap kick (Apcha busigi)


Set sparring: Basic 3. No Partner.
Free sparring (Jayu matsogi): No contact.


On Page 26 & 27

Intermediate & Advanced:
(For 1st grading of the year)
Release from single arm and lapel holds (circle system or pray system)
Blunt Weapon Attack: Basic 1 steps for (swing, overhead, lunge)
Defend against shoot or tackle
Understand SRSS, explain TTT & last resort animal instinct.


“Who was the Founder & Father of Taekwon-Do?”
“What rank was the Founder of Taekwon-Do?”
“What is the literal meaning of ‘Taekwon-Do?’”
“What does the colour ‘white’ signify?”
“List any 2 rules of the dojang.”
“List any 2 Vital Spots anywhere on the body”


Order of Belts:

White Belt, Yellow Stripes, Green Stripe, Blue Stripe, Red Stripe, Yellow Belt, Green Stripe, Green Belt, Blue Stripe, Blue Belt, Red Stripe, Red Belt, Black Stripe, Black Belt


Meaning of Belt Colours:
White Signifies Innocence, as that of beginning a student who has no previous knowledge of Taekwon-Do
Yellow Signifies the Earth from which a plant sprouts and takes root as the Taekwon-Do foundation is being laid
Green Signifies the plant’s Growth as the Taekwon-Do skill begins to develop
Blue Signifies the Heaven,toward which the plant matures into a towering tree as training in Taekwon-Do progresses
Red Signifies Danger, Cautioning the student to exercise control and warning the opponent to stay away
Black Opposite of white, therefore, signifying the maturity and proficiency in Taekwon-Do
It also indicates the wearer’s imperviousness to darkness and fear

Taekwondo Grading & Mascot